An International Peer Reviewed Research Journal

Vol 27 Nos 9-12, 2018

AJP

SSN : 0971 - 3093

Vol 27, Nos 9-12, September-December, 2018

Special Issue of Asian Journal of Physics


dedicated to


Prof T Asakura


Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                         Vol. 27 Nos 9-12, (2018), 447-456

 

Quantum Limited (Security) Communication


Francis T S Yu
Emeritus Evan Pugh Professor of Electrical Engineering
the Pennsylvania State University: University Park, PA 16802

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

In this article, I will show that information-transmission (IT) can be carried out within a quantum unit, as defined by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, in which this unit can be translated as a quantum limited subspace (QLS).  I will show the size of a QLS is determined by the carrier bandwidth; that is narrower the bandwidth , the larger the size of the QLS can be used for complex amplitude communication. By understanding the pros and the cons of IT within the QLS, more innovative communication techniques can be developed and employed in practice.  For examples; such as applied to security IT within the QLS. Imaging using phase conjugation idea will be illustrated. A new era of innovative communication is anticipated to immerge and it will change the way we used to communicate forever!  © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Information Transmission, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Quantum Unit, Quantum Limited Subspace, Carrier Bandwidth, Security Communication, Phase Conjugation Communication.

References

  1.   Heisenberg W, Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik, Zeitschrift für Physik, 43(1927)172-198.

  2.   Yu F T S, Time: The Enigma of Space, Asian J Phys, 26(2017)149-158.

  3.   Gabor D, Theory of Communication, J Inst Elect Eng, 93(1946)429-437.

  4.   Dunn D, Yu F T S, Chapman C D, “Some Theoretical and Experimental Analysis with the Sound Spectrograph”, Communication Sciences Laboratory, Report

        7, University of Michigan, August, 1966.

  5.   Yu F T S, Information Transmission with Quantum Limited Subspace, Asian J Phys, 27(2018)1-12.  

  6.   Gabor D, A New Microscope Principle, Nature, 161(1948)777-778.

  7.   Cultrona L J, Leith E N, Porcello L J, Vivian W E, On the application of Coherent Optical Processing Techniques to Synthetic-Aperture Radar, Proc IEEE,

        54(1966)1026-1032.

  8.   Lugt A Vander, Signal detection by Complex Spatial Filtering, IEEE Trans Inform Theory, 10(1964)139-145; doi:10.1109/TIT.1964.1053650      

  9.   Yu F T S, Tai  A M, Chen H, One-step Rainbow Holography: Recent Development and Application, Opt Engg,  19(1980)666-678.

10.   Hunt A R, Use of a Frequency-Hopping Radar for Imaging and Motion Detection Through Walls,in IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing,

        47(2009)1402-1408.

11.   Yu F T S, Introduction to Diffraction, Information Processing and Holography, Chapter 10, (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.), 1973.

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 457-466


Three-dimensional correlation properties of speckles produced by diffractal-illuminated diffusers


Makram Ibrahim1 and Jun Uozumi2

1National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan 11421 Cairo, Egypt

2Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 064-0926, Japan

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Three-dimensional correlation properties were studied experimentally for speckled-speckle patterns produced by a rough surface on which the speckle field due to a random fractal object is incident. The speckled speckles observed in some lateral planes with different propagation distances did not exhibit a definite speckle size, having many intensity clusters with various sizes which tend to increase with an increase of the fractal dimension of the fractal object. The fractality across the lateral planes was confirmed by the existence of a power-law behavior in the intensity correlation, and was practically independent of the propagation distance. The longitudinal fractality was also revealed by finding a nearly power-law behavior in the longitudinal intensity correlation. It was shown that the longitudinal fractal dimension was larger than the lateral fractal dimension for each dimension of the fractal object, indicating an anisotropic fractality of the speckle field. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Speckled speckle, Fractal speckle, Speckle clustering, Longitudinal correlation, Correlation tail, Power law

References

    1.    Vicsek T, Fractal Growth Phenomena, (World Scientific, Singapore),1992.
    2.    Takayasu H, Fractals in Physical Science, (Manchester University, Manchester),1990.
    3.    Berry M V, J Phys A:Math Gen,12(1979)781-797.
    4.    Uozumi J, Asakura T, Current Trends in Optics, (ed) Dainty J C, (Academic Press, London), 1994, pp 83-93.
    5.    Uozumi J, Asakura T, Optical Storage and Retrieval — Memory, Neural Networks, and Fractals, (eds) Yu F T S, Jutamulia S, (Marcel Dekker, New York),

           1996, pp 283-320.
    6.    Uno K, Uozumi J, Asakura T, Opt Commun, 124(1996)16-22.
    7.    Uozumi J, Ibrahim M, Asakura T, Opt Commun,156(1998)350-358.
    8.    Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Opt Express, 15(2007)7415-7422.
    9.    Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Engineering Research (Bull Grad Sch Eng, Hokkai-Gakuen Univ), 5 (2005)63-71.
    10.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, J Mod Opt, 54(2007)1511-1528.
    11.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Ishii Y, Opt Rev, 17(2010)191-194.
    12.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Aizu Y, J Opt, 15(2013) 035704; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/15/3/035704.
    13.  Miyasaka E, Uozumi J, Engineering Research (Bull Grad Sch Eng, Hokkai-Gakuen Univ), 12 (2012)12-23.
    14.  Uozumi J, Tsujino, Miyasaka E, Ibrahim M, Proc SPIE, 3749(1999)322-232.
    15.  Uozumi, Proc SPIE, 4242(2001)13-24.
    16.  O’Donnell K A, J Opt Soc Am A, 72(1982)1459-1463.
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    21.  Ibrahim M, Uozumi J, Asakura T, Opt Rev, 5(1998)129-137.

Three-dimensional correlation properties of speckles produced by diffractal-illuminated diffusers.pdf
Makram Ibrahim and Jun Uozumi

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                           Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 467-474


Laser light scattering from rough glass liquid interface:
a case study of screening of adulterated diesel oils


Kai-Erik Peiponen,Boniphace Kanyathare and Benjamin Asamoah

Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, P. O. Box 111, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Light scattering is an important phenomenon in various technological applications. For the case of rough glass-liquid interface, it depends on the surface roughness and refractive index mismatch which leads to speckle pattern in the far field region, as well as wetting and variation in the local contact angle. The objective of this work was to study laser light scattering from both rough and smooth glass-liquid interfaces. This was accomplished using a modified handheld gloss meter (portable sensor) which enables recording of time-dependent backscattered laser light (TDBLL) through a software on an integrated laptop. As a feasibility study, authentic and adulterated diesel oils were considered. It is shown that, even though nonzero excess refractive index exists when diesel oils are mixed with kerosene, it has minor role in the dynamic process of liquid spreading. The spreading of liquid as well as excess refractive index depends on the intermolecular interactions which emerges in the measured signals. The different adulterated samples were ordered according to the increase in the volume of the adulterant (kerosene). Hence, the measured TDBLL signals for smooth and rough glass enables distinction between authentic and adulterated diesel oil samples.  © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Light scattering,Refractive index, Backscattered laser light (TDBLL), Kerosine oil

References

  1.  Asakura T, in  Surface roughness measurement, (ed) Erf K, (Academic Press. INC, New York) 1978, pp 11-49.

  2.   Kanyathare B, Peiponen K-E, Appl Opt, 57(2018)2997-3002.

  3.   Kanyathare B, Peiponen K-E, Sensors, 18(2018)1551; doi.org/10.3390/s18051551

  4.   David R, Neumann A W, Langmuir, 29(2013)4551-4558.

  5.   Wolansky G, Marmur A, Langmuir, 14(1998)5292-5297.

  6.   Rosenholm J B, Peiponen K-E, Gornov E, Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 141(2008)48-65.

  7.   Kuivalainen K, Oksman A, Juuti M, Myller K, Peiponen K-E, Opt Rev, 17(2010)248-251.

  8.   Kanyathare B, Kuivalainen K, Räty J, Silfsten P, Bawuah P, Peiponen K.-E, JEOS:RP,14(2018)1-6.

  9.   Tanner L H, Opt Laser Technol, 8(1976)11-116.

10.   Rahimi P, Ward C A, Microgravity Sci Technol, 16(2005)231-235.

11.   Marmur A, J Colloid Interface Sci, 168(1994)40-46.

Laser light scattering from rough glass liquid interface: a case study of screening of adulterated diesel oils.pdf
Kai-Erik Peiponen, Boniphace Kanyathare and Benjamin Asamoah

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                        Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 475-482


Optimal digitization of one-dimensional dynamic speckle signals for object identification


Takashi Okamoto and Jun Mizobe

Department of Systems Design and Informatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology,
680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502, Japan,

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

We investigate a method of object identification using dynamic laser speckles to identify scattering objects such as paper or plastic cards. The effects of sampling interval and quantization level of the speckle signals on authentication performance are examined by using the equal error rate (EER) as a measure of the accuracy of object identification. It is observed that a sampling interval of more than the correlation length of speckle fluctuations and a quantization of two or three bits offers the lowest EER for data sizes ranging from 100 to 500 bytes. The optimal quantization bit number is verified by experiments using plastic cards. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

References

  1.   Herder, C., Yu, M.-D., Koushanfar, F., and Devadas, S., “Physical unclonable functions and applications: A tutorial,” Procd IEEE, 102(2014)1126-1141.

  2.   Carnicer A, Javidi B, Optical security and authentication using nanoscale and thin-film structures, Adv Opt Photon,9(2017)218-256.

  3.   Pappu R, Recht B, Taylor J, Gershenfeld N, Physical one-way functions, Science, 297(2002)2026-030.

  4.   Buchanan J D R, Cowburn R P, Jausovec A.-V, Petit D, Seem, P, Xiong G, Atkinson D, Fenton K, Allwood D A, Bryan M T, Forgery: ‘Fingerprinting’

        documents and packaging, Nature, 436(2005)475; doi.org/10.1038/436475a

  5.   Škorić B, On the entropy of keys derived from laser speckle; Statistical properties of Gabor-transformed speckle, J Opt A: Pure Appl Opt, 10(2008)055304;

        doi.org/10.1088/1464-4258/10/5/055304          

  6.   Matoba O, Sawasaki T, Nitta K, Optical authentication method using a three-dimensional phase object with various wavelength readouts, Appl Opt,

        47(2008)4400-4404.

  7.   Seem P R, Buchanan J D R,  Cowburn R P, Impact of surface roughness on laser surface authentication signatures under linear and rotational displacements,

        Opt Lett, 34(2009)3175-3177.

  8.   Yamakoshi M, Rong X, Matsumoto T, An artifact-metrics which utilizes laser speckle patterns for plastic ID card surface, Procd SPIE, 7618(2010)76180B;

         doi.org/10.1117/12.842237

  9.    Yeh C H, Lee G, Lin C Y, Robust laser speckle authentication system through data mining techniques, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics,

         11(2015)50-512.

Optimal digitization of one-dimensional dynamic speckle signals for object identification.pdf
Takashi Okamoto and Jun Mizobe

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 485-489

 

Joint transform correlation of compressed digital images


Joewono Widjaja

School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology

Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Joint transform correlator (JTC) of digitally compressed images is studied by using low-contrast retinal fundus images. Simulation results show that the JTC has reliable recognition performance even though the compressed retinal images have low contrast and are corrupted by noise. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Joint transform correlator (JTC), Real-time JTC, Retinal images, Pixels

References

    1.   Yu FTS, Jutamulia S, Lin TW, Gregory DA, Appl Opt, 26(1987)1370-1372.
    2.   Jutamulia S, in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, (Marcel Dekker, New York), 2003, p. 984.
    3.   Alsamman A R, Alam M S, Opt Eng, 42(2003)560; doi.org/10.1117/1.1534589
    4.   Widjaja J, Appl Opt, 46(2007)8278-8283
    5.   Hill R B, in Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society, (Springer, New York), 1999, p 123.
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    7.   Widjaja J, Suripon U, Opt Eng, 50(2011)098201; doi.org/10.1117/1.3626205
    8.   Pennebaker W B, Mitchell J L, JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard, (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York), 1993.
    9.   Roberge D, Sheng Y, Appl Opt, 33(1983)5287-5293

Joint transform correlation of compressed digital images.pdf
Joewono Widjaja

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 491-501


Heat and density induced optical nonlinearities of Chinese tea extract


Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan1, Hirofumi Kadono2, Kai -E Peiponen3 and Timo Jaaskelainen3

1Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

2Saitama University, Saitama City, Japan

3The University of Eastern Finland Joensuu, Finland

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

It has been reported that a Chinese tea dissolved in alcohol can produce very strong phase modulation. In this research work, we propose a self-align phase filter utilizing the phase modulation capability of Chinese tea. We have analyzed the spatial resolution characteristics in order to investigate the origin behind the optical nonlinearity of Chinese tea. A theoretical model has been presented based on the effects of thermal and density gradients. Our experimental results show clear evidence for the existence of density variations apart from the thermal variations to be the reason for the nonlinear effects observed in Chinise tea. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Chinese tea, Optical nonlinearity, Phase modulation, Phase filter, Density gradients, Thermal gradients

References

  1.   Zhang H J, Dai J H, Wang P Y, Wu L A, Opt Lett, 14(1989)695-696.

  2.   Lin H H, Korpel A, Mehr D, Anderson D A, Opt News, (Dec 1989), p 55.

  3.   He K X, Abdeldayam H, Sekhar P C, Venkateswarelu P, George M C, Opt Commun, 81(1991)101-105.

  4.   Tian J G, Zhang C, Zhang G, Optik, 90(1992)1-3.

  5.   Peiponen K E, Rajgopalan Uma M, Jaaskelainen T, Gu C, Am J Phys, 61(1993)937-938.

  6.   Tian J G, Zhang C, Zhang G, Li J, Appl Opt, 32(1993)6628-6632.

  7.   Kadono H, Ogusu M, Toyooka S, Opt Commun, 110(1994)391-400.

  8.   Hu C,  Whinnery J R, Appl Opt, 12(1973)72-79.

  9.   Sheldon S J, Knight L V, Thome J M, Appl Opt, 21(1982)1663-1669.

10.   Cheung Y M, Gayen S K, J Opt Soc Am B, 11(1994)636-643.

11.          Hoque E, Biswas M K, Somadder A, Faruk M O, Sharif S M, Chawdhury N, Das S K, Haque Y, J Opt, 42(2013) 286-290.

Heat and density induced optical nonlinearities of Chinese tea extract.pdf
Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan, Hirofumi Kadono, Kai -E Peiponen and Timo Jaaskelainen

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                      Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 503-513


Effects of detection area on measurements of spectral
reflectance in human skin tissue


Tomonori Yuasa1, Yuta Kobori1, Kaustav Das1,  Takaaki Maeda2,

Hideki Funamizu1,  and  Yoshihisa Aizu1

1Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585, Japan

2Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, Hokkaido 084-0916, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Measurement of spectral reflectance of skin is influenced by the size of the detection area in a spectrophotometer. We investigate changes in the spectral reflectance curve and photon fluence in a visible wavelength range by using Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in a nine-layered skin tissue model. Reflected light component in the longer wavelength range broadens on the skin surface, and is subject to be missed if the detecting aperture is small.  This component should be detected properly enough to measure accurate spectral reflectance. An experiment was conducted to discuss spectral characteristics with respect to size of the detection area.  © Anita Publications. All rights reserved..

Keywords: spectral reflectance, human skin, Monte Carlo simulation

References

  1.   Tuchin V, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis. (SPIE-The International Society for  Optical Engineering,

        Washington DC), 2000, Chap 1, p3.

  2.   Stratonnikov A A, Loschenov V B, J Biomed Opt, 6(2001)457; doi.org/10.1117/1.1411979

  3.   Nishidate I, Aizu Y, Mishina H, J Biomed Opt, 9(2004)700; doi.org/10.1117/1.1756918

  4.   Iwai T, Kimura G, Opt Rev, 7(2000)436-441;

  5.   Jacques S L, Saidi I S, Tittel F K, Proc SPIE, 2128(1994)231-237.

  6.   Nishidate I, Aizu Y, Mishina H, Opt Rev, 10(2003)427-435.

  7.   Masuda Y, Yamashita T, Hirao T, Takahashi M, Skin Res Technol, 15(2009)224-229; doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00359.x

  8.   Wang L, Jacques S L, Zheng L Q, Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 47(1995)131-146.

  9.   Maeda T, Arakawa N, Takahashi M, Aizu Y, Opt Rev, 17(2010)223-229.

10.   Van Gemert M J C, Jacques S L, Sterenborg H J C M, Star W M, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 36(1989)1146-1154.

11.    Meglinski I V, Matcher S J, Physiol Meas, 23(2002)741; doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/23/4/312

12.    Meglinski I V, Matcher S J, Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 70(2003)179-186; doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2607(02)00099-8

Effects of detection area on measurements of spectral reflectance in human skin tissue.pdf
Tomonori Yuasa, Yuta Kobori, Kaustav Das, Takaaki Maeda, Hideki Funamizu and Yoshihisa Aizu

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 515-528


Correlation properties of fractal speckles in the Fresnel diffraction region


Kenji Tsujino1 and Jun Uozumi2, *

1Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan

2Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 064-0926, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Three-dimensional correlation properties were studied theoretically and experimentally for fractal speckles produced in the Fresnel diffraction field. In the theoretical analysis, speckle patterns produced by a rough surface illuminated with coherent light with a power-law intensity distribution are assumed. It is shown that the intensity correlation in the longitudinal direction has different power law from the correlation across lateral planes. In the experiment, speckled-speckles were produced by a rough surface on which the speckle field due to a random fractal object is incident and their correlation properties were examined. The speckles observed in some lateral planes with different propagation distances did not exhibit a definite speckle size, having many intensity clusters with various sizes which tend to increase with an increase in the fractal dimension of the fractal object. The fractality across the lateral planes was confirmed by the existence of a power-law behavior in the intensity correlation,and was practically independent of the propagation distance. The longitudinal fractality was also revealed by a nearly power-law behavior in the longitudinal intensity correlation. It was shown that the longitudinal fractal dimension was larger than the lateral one for each dimension of the fractal object, indicating anisotropic fractality of the speckle field. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: fractal speckle, Fresnel diffraction, axial correlation, anisotropic fractals, correlation tail, power law

Total Refs

  1.   Mandelbrot B B, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, (Freeman, San Francisco, 1982).

  2.   Feder J, Fractals, (Plenum, New York, 1988).

  3.   Vicsek T, Fractal Growth Phenomena, (World Scientific, 1989).

  4.   Berry M V, J Phys A: Math Gen, 12(1979)781-797.

  5.   Konotop V V, Yordanov O I, Yurkevich I V, Europhys Lett, 12(1990)481-485.

  6.   Nicola S D, Opt Commun, 111(1994)11-17.

  7.   Konotop V V, Phys Rev A, 43(1991)1352-1357.

  8.   Uozumi J, Kimura H, Asakura T, J Mod Opt, 37(1990)1011-1031.

  9.   Uozumi J, Kimura H, Asakura T, Waves in Random Media, 1(1991)73-80.

10.   Uozumi J, Asakura T, Current Trends in Optics, (ed) Dainty J C, (Academic, London, 1994), 83-93.

11.   Uozumi J, Asakura T, Optical Storage and Retrieval — Memory, Neural Networks, and Fractals, (ed) Yu F T S, Jutamulia S, (Marcel Dekker, New York,

        1996), 283-320.

12.   Uno K, Uozumi J, Asakura T, Opt Commun, 124(1996)16-22.

13.   Uozumi J, Ibrahim M, Asakura T, Opt Commun, 156(1998)350-358.

14.   Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Opt Express, 15(2007)7415-7422.

15.   Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Engineering Research, Bull Grad Sch Eng, Hokkai-Gakuen Univ, 5(2005)63-71.

16.   Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Ishii Y, Opt Rev, 17(2010)191-194.

17.   Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Aizu Y, J Opt, 15(2013)035704; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/15/3/035704.

18.   Funamizu H, Uozumi J, J Mod Opt, 54(2007)1511-1528.

19.   Miyasaka E, Uozumi J, Engineering Research, Bull Grad Sch Eng, Hokkai-Gakuen Univ, 12(2012)12-23.

20.   Uozumi J, Tsujino, Miyasaka E, Ibrahim M, Proc SPIE, 3749(1999)322-232.

21.   Uozumi J, Proc SPIE, 3904(1999)320-331.

22.   Uozumi J, Proc SPIE, 4242(2001)13-24.

23.   Uozumi J, Proc SPIE, 4607(2002)257-267.

24.   Goodman J W, Laser speckle and related phenomena,2nd enlarged edition, (ed) Dainty J C, (Springer, Berlin, 1984), Chap 2.

25.   Fisher M E, Burford R J, Phys Rev, 156(1967)583-622.

26.   Dogariu A, Uozumi J, Asakura T, J Mod Opt, 41(1994)729-738.

Correlation properties of fractal speckles in the Fresnel diffraction region.pdf
Kenji Tsujino and Jun Uozumi

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 529-539


Development and performance evaluation of portable light therapy apparatus
for improvement of sleep and wakefulness


Tomonori Yuasa1, Jun Miura2, Yasunori Sugai3, Yousuke Ito3 and Yoshihisa Aizu1

1Muroran Institute of Technology,.27-1, Mizumoto, Muroran, Hokkaido, 050-8585, Japan

2Hokkaido University of Science,7-Jo 15-4-1 Maeda, Teine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 006-8585, Japan

3DENSEI COMMUNICATION Inc, 8-13, Kouei, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, 067-0051, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

We have recently developed a portable light therapy apparatus for improvement of sleep quality and wakefulness. To design fundamental specification of this apparatus and evaluate its performance, we conducted some preliminary experiments using a self-made head model for measurement of illumination in eyeball. We also employed iPad-based psychodiagnostic test for evaluating sleep quality. The experimental results demonstrate usefulness of the developed portable light therapy apparatus.©Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Light therapy, Sleep quality, Wakefulness, Blue light

Development and performance evaluation of portable light therapy apparatus for improvement of sleep and wakefulness.pdf
Tomonori Yuasa, Jun Miura, Yasunori Sugai, Yousuke Ito and Yoshihisa Aizu

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 541-548


Overview of miniature CMOS camera and its applications


Suganda Jutamulia and Lequn (Jennifer) Liu

University of Northern California, Department of Biomedical Engineering

1129 Industrial Avenue Petaluma, CA 94952

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Miniature CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) cameras are applied to  smart phones, medical devices, and automobiles. The paper overviews the operation and structure of CMOS image sensor. The paper also presents the wafer level camera module including CMOS image sensor and wafer level lens.  © Anita Publications. All rights reserved..

Keywords: CMOS image sensor, Wafer level lens, Wafer level camera.

Overview of miniature CMOS camera and its applications.pdf
Suganda Jutamulia and Lequn (Jennifer) Liu

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                       Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 549-561


Topographic imaging of skin subsurface bleeding in a recovery process
using diffuse reflectance images


Takaaki Maeda1, Izumi Nishidate2, Tomonori Yuasa3, and Yoshihisa Aizu3

1Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, Hokkaido 084-0916, Japan

2Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology,Tokyo 184-8588, Japan

3Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585, Japan

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

A method is proposed for measuring the depth and thickness of skin subsurface bleeding using diffuse reflectance images at two isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin, 420 and 585 or 800 nm, at which absorbing coefficients of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin have the same value. Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate characteristic curves of the absorbance versus depth or thickness. These curves are formulated by exponential approximation which is adaptive to individual variations of melanin in epidermis and hemoglobin in dermis. Experiments with skin tissue phantoms were carried out to show the ability of the method. The method is capable for measuring the depth smaller than 700-800 μm and the thickness smaller than 350-400 μm in blood concentration lower than about 20 %. By this ability, the method was successfully applied to topographic imaging of the internal bleeding in skin subsurface tissue of human forearm, particularly in a recovery process. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Diffuse reflectance, Skin tissue, Absorbance, Isosbestic wavelengths

Topographic imaging of skin subsurface bleeding in a recovery process using diffuse reflectance images.pdf
Takaaki Maeda, Izumi Nishidate, Tomonori Yuasa, and Yoshihisa Aizu

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                     Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 563-571


Statistics of derivatives of intensity and phase in fractal speckles


Hideki Funamizu1 and Jun Uozumi2

 1Division of Production Systems Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1

Mizumoto, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585, Japan

2Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 064-0926, Japan

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

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Statistical properties of the derivatives of the intensity and phase in fractal speckles are investigated theoretically. To obtain the statistics, we derive two key parameters in the joint density function of speckle intensity, phase and their derivatives with respect to x and y. These parameters in fractal speckles are given by performing the integration of a negative power function, which corresponds to an intensity distribution incident on a diffuser for producing fractal speckles. In relation to these two parameters, we also derive a correlation area in fractal speckles. The results show that the two parameters and the correlation area in fractal speckles obey power functions related to the negative power exponent in the function of the intensity profile incident on the diffuser. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

References

    1.    Uno K, Uozumi J, Asakura T, Opt Commun, 124(1996)16-22.
    2.    Uozumi J, Ibrahim M, Asakura T, Opt Commun, 156(1998)350-358.
    3.    Uozumi J, Proc SPIE, 4607(2002)257-267.
    4.    Miyasaka E, Uozumi J, Eng Res Bull Grad School Eng, Hokkai-Gakuen Univ, 12(2012)13-23.
    5.    Okamoto T, Fujita S, J Opt Soc Am A, 25(2008)3030-3042.
    6.    Funamizu H,Uozumi J, J Mod Opt, 54 (2007) 1511-1528.
    7.    Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Opt Commun, 281(2008) 543-549.
    8.    Funamizu H, Uozumi J, J Opt A: Pure Appl Opt, 10 (2008), Article number 025004 1-7.
    9.    Uozumi J, Proc SPIE, 4829(2002)603-604.
    10.  Goodman J W, Speckle phenomena in Optics, (Colorad: Roberts & Company, 2006).
    11.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Opt Express,15 (2007)7415-7422.
    12.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Ishii Y, Opt Rev, 17(2010)191-194.
    13.  Funamizu H, Uozumi J, Aizu Y, J Opt, 15(2013); 035704; doi.org/10.1088/2040-8978/15/3/035704
    14.  Goodman J W, Fourier Optics, (Colorad: Roberts & Company, 2005).
    15.  Grandshteyn I S, Ryzhik I M, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, (New York: Academic Press, 2007).
    16.  Fisher M E, Burford R J, Phys Rev, 156(1967)583-622.
    17.  Abramowitz M, Stegun I A, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, (New York: Dover Publications, INC., 1965).

Statistics of derivatives of intensity and phase in fractal speckles.pdf
Hideki Funamizu and Jun Uozumi

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 573-585

Phase-controlled fractional derivatives for near infrared spectral processing


Jun Uozumi

Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 064-0926, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

As an extension of fractional derivatives, phase-controlled fractional derivative is proposed by modifying the phase factor of the filter function in the definition of the fractional differentiation in view of the application to the spectral data analysis in near infrared spectroscopy. This process can control the degree of enhancing tiny peaks and the degree of peak shift independently and continuously. It is therefore possible to obtain, for example, a derivative spectrum having peak shift similar to the first derivative and peak thinning and enhancement similar to the second derivative, which gives better peak separation than conventional and fractional derivatives do. Properties of fractional derivatives and fractional absolute derivatives are also revisited as a base of introducing the phase-controlled fractional derivatives. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: fractional derivative, derivative spectroscopy,near infrared spectroscopy, peak enhancement

References
  
  1.    Podlubny I, Fractional Differential Equations, (Academic Press, San Diego), 1999.            .
    2.    Diethelm K, The Analysis of Fractional Differential Equations: An Application-Oriented Exposition Using Differential Operators of Caputo Type, (Springer;

           Berlin), 2010.
    3.    Ortigueira M D, Fractional Calculus for Scientists and Engineers, (Springer, Dordrecht), 2013.
    4.    Siesler H W, Ozaki Y, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Principles, Instruments, Applications, (Wiley, Weinhelm), 2002.
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Phase-controlled fractional derivatives for near infrared spectral processing.pdf
Jun Uozumi

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                  Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 597-602

Photon-counting and sparsity-based optical authentication and verification schemes


Areeba Fatima and Naveen K Nishchal

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna

Bihar, Patna-801 103, India

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

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Optical information security is a widely researched field and optical authentication and verification schemes form an integral part of it. This paper reviews the two most widely used approaches to develop the authentication systems, namely, the photon-counting technique and the sparsity-based technique. The methodology of each category is discussed with its benefits. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Authentication, Sparsity of matrices, Photon counting, Nonlinear correlator

Total Refs : 21

Photon-counting and sparsity-based optical authentication and verification schemes.pdf
Areeba Fatima and Naveen K Nishchal

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                            Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 603-610

Photorefractive optical processing in a correlator by two-wave mixing

with a beam-propagation analysis


Yukihiro Ishii1,2 and Takeshi Takahashi3

1Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Katsushika, Tokyo 125-8585, Japan

2Photonics Control Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako 351-0198, Japan

3Department of Electronic and Information Systems Engineering, Polytechnic University,
Kodaira, Tokyo 187-0035, Japan

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Enhance Fourier-transformed spectra of an object with high-frequency components by a photorefractive BaTiO3 two-wave mixing are imaged on a phase-only filter of a reference object displayed by a liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator. Beam propagation inside a crystal includes to show an actual process in a two-wave mixing process. The experiments with the high-discrimination capability on the correlation performance are shown. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Photorefractive optics, Two-wave mixing, Angular spectrum, Holographic correlator,Pattern recognition.

Total Refs : 20

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                            Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 625-636

Nanocomposite luminescent solar concentrators: Optics for green energy


Abdalla M Darwish*,Sergey S Sarkisov and Darayas N Patel

*Physics and Engineering Department, Dillard University, New Orleans, LA70122

SSS Optical Technologies, LLC, Huntsville, AL35816

Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Oakwood University, Huntsville, AL35896

This article is dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the windows or coatings of the windows that convert the invisible, ultraviolet (UV) part of the sun spectrum into near-infrared (NIR) radiation used to generate electricity by conventional silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells attached to the window edges. They have the potential of being used as the source of electricity in self-sustaining buildings in dense urban environment without compromising their aesthetics. This paper presents polymer nanocomposite films doped with the nanoparticles of rare-earth (RE)-doped fluoride phosphor NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ (molar proportion: a = 3% of Er3+, b = 1 to 5% of Er3+, and [100% – (a + b)] of Y3+) suitable for efficient LSCs. The films are deposited using the concurrent multi-beam multi-target pulsed laser deposition of the inorganic target material and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of the polymer (CMBMT-PLD/MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) known as PMMA was evaporated and deposited on a glass windows from its solution in chlorobenzene frozen in liquid nitrogen with the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser concurrently with the inorganic phosphor target ablated with the 2-nd harmonic (532 nm) of the same laser.  In the proposed LSC film the sun light is absorbed by the phosphor nanoparticles embedded in the polymer film and converted in NIR radiation via the mechanism of down -conversion (quantum cutting). The NIR radiation propagates via the glass plate as a light guide towards the edges with attached PV cells. The advantage of the proposed polymer nanocomposite LSCs is a broadband absorption covering a significant portion of the solar short-wave radiation, high spectral conversion efficiency, and low reabsorption due to minimal overlap between the absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift). The power concentration factor is expected to be of the order of 10. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Total Refs : 44

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                          Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 637-645


Asymmetric audio encryption system based on Arnold transform
and random decomposition


Anjana Savita1, Phool Singh2, A K Yadav3 and Kehar Singh1

1Department of Applied Sciences, The North Cap University, Gurugram- 122 017, India

2Department of Mathematics (SOET), Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh-609 602, India

3Department of Applied Mathematics, Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon-122 413, India

Dedicated to Prof T Asakura

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

An asymmetric audio enciphering scheme using Arnold transform and random decomposition in Fourier domain is proposed. An input audio file is first converted to an image and then after scrambling its pixels using Arnold transform, is subjected to random decomposition twice in the Fourier domain. The complex-valued masks thus obtained by random decomposition after Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms act as private keys. The proposed scheme of audio encryption is secure enough against various basic attacks such as KPA, CPA, COA, and specific attack for asymmetric systems. The scheme is validated for an audio file using MATLAB 2017a. The sensitivity of the cryptosystem relative to the encryption parameters is also tested. © Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Audio encryption, random decomposition, Arnold transforms, asymmetric cryptosystem.

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  4.   Qin W, Peng X, Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms, Opt Lett, 35(2010)118-120.

  5.   Singh H, Yadav A K, Vashisth S, Singh K, Double phase-image encryption using gyrator transforms, and structured phase mask in the frequency plane, Opt

         Lasers Eng, 67(2015)145-156.

  6.   Singh P, Yadav A K, Singh K, Phase image encryption in the fractional Hartley domain using Arnold transform and singular value decomposition, Opt Lasers

        Eng, 91(2017)187-195.

  7.   Singh P, Yadav A, Singh K, Color image encryption using affine transform in fractional Hartley domain, Opt Appl, 47(2017)421-433.

  8.   Liu Z, She Li S, Liu W, Wang Y, Liu S, Image encryption algorithm by using fractional Fourier transform and pixel scrambling operation based on double

        random phase encoding, Opt Lasers Eng, 51(2013)8-14.

  9.   Singh P, Yadav A K, Singh K, Saini I, Optical image encryption in the fractional Hartley domain, using Arnold transform and singular value decomposition,

        AIP Conf Proc,1802(2017)020017-1–7.               

10.   Anjana S, Saini I, Singh P, Yadav A K, Asymmetric Cryptosystem Using Affine Transform in Fourier Domain, In: Bhattacharyya S et al., eds. Advanced

        Computational and Communication Paradigms, (Singapore: Springer Singapore), 2018, p. 29–37.            

11.   Saini I, Singh P, Yadav A K, Analysis of Lorenz-chaos and exclusive-OR based image encryption scheme, Int J Soc Comput Cyber-Phys Syst, 2(2017)59-72.

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        2017(2017)20-1–11.

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        attack, Opt Lasers Eng, 50(2012)1196-1201.

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Asymmetric audio encryption system based on Arnold transform and random decomposition.pdf
Anjana Savita, Phool Singh, A K Yadav and Kehar Singh

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Asian Journal of Physics                                                                                                    Vol. 27 No 9-12, (2018), 647-652


M N Saha and the Physics Nobel Prize – Celebrating
M N Saha’s 125th Birth Anniversary


Rajinder Singh

University of Oldenburg, Faculty V - Institute of Physics,
Research Group: Physics Education and History of Physics, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany.


Meghnad Saha alias M N Saha (1893-1956) is known for the development of the Saha-ionisation equation, which made it possible to calculate the ionization energy for elements under known pressure and temperature; and with that to explain the structure of stars [1-4]. Saha communicated with great physicists like Albert Einstein [5,6] and astrophysicist Harry Hemley Plaskett [7,8]. To make his ideas public he founded the renowned journal “Science and Culture” in 1935 , which is the mouth piece of the Indian Science News Association. Saha established a school of physics, which produced  many influential scientists like D S Kothari, B D Nag Chowdhury, P K Kichlu, N K Sur and R C Majumdar. There are a number of books and articles, which explore various aspects of his life [9-16].Saha was the third Indian physicist (after J C Bose (1920) and C V Raman (1924)) to be elected as the Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1927 [17]. Until 1956, that is Saha’s death only three Indian physicists were nominated for the Physics Nobel Prize. Saha was one of them. The other two were C V Raman and H J Bhabha [18]. In the present article, which is based on my previous work, a short review about his nomination as well as the cause of his unsuccessful nomination is given [19].

M N Saha and the Physics Nobel Prize – Celebrating M N Saha’s 125th Birth Anniversary.pdf
Rajinder Singh

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